Zooming in: High Resolution 3D Reconstruction of Differently Stained Histological Whole Slide Images

Johannes Lotz, Judith Berger, Benedikt Müller, Kai Breuhahn, Niels Grabe, Stefan Heldmann, André Homeyer, Bernd Lahrmann, Hendrik Laue, Janine Olesch, Michael Schwier, Oliver Sedlaczek, Arne Warth


Much insight into metabolic interactions, tissue growth, and tissue organization can be gained by analyzing differently stained histological serial sections. One opportunity unavailable to classic histology is three-dimensional (3D) examination and computer aided analysis of tissue samples. In this case, registration is needed to reestablish spatial correspondence between adjacent slides that is lost during the sectioning process. Furthermore, the sectioning introduces various distortions like cuts, folding, tearing, and local deformations to the tissue, which need to be corrected in order to exploit the additional information arising from the analysis of neighboring slide images. In this paper we present a novel image registration based method for reconstructing a 3D tissue block implementing a zooming strategy around a user-defined point of interest. We efficiently align consecutive slides at increasingly fine resolution up to cell level. We use a two-step approach, where after a macroscopic, coarse alignment of the slides as preprocessing, a nonlinear, elastic registration is performed to correct local, non-uniform deformations. Being driven by the optimization of the normalized gradient field (NGF) distance measure, our method is suitable for differently stained and thus multi-modal slides. We applied our method to ultra thin serial sections (2 μm) of a human lung tumor. In total 170 slides, stained alternately with four different stains, have been registered. Thorough visual inspection of virtual cuts through the reconstructed block perpendicular to the cutting plane shows accurate alignment of vessels and other tissue structures. This observation is confirmed by a quantitative analysis. Using nonlinear image registration, our method is able to correct locally varying deformations in tissue structures and exceeds the limitations of globally linear transformations.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMedical Imaging 2014: Digital Pathology
Number of pages7
Publication date20.03.2014
ISBN (Print)9780819498342
Publication statusPublished - 20.03.2014
EventSPIE Medical Imaging 2014, Image Processing
- San Diego, United States
Duration: 15.02.201420.02.2014


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