The treatment landscape of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rapidly evolving. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have now become the preferred first line treatment with the approval of nivolumab and ipilimumab combination in intermediate to poor risk patients. Combination/s of ICI with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors will also be approved in future. The optimal treatment of patients who progress on ICI-based therapies is not well defined as of yet. In this review, we discuss the data regarding various treatment options available in this space, their limitations, and also provide our opinion regarding treatment selection.
Research Areas and Centers
- Research Area: Luebeck Integrated Oncology Network (LION)
- Centers: University Cancer Center Schleswig-Holstein (UCCSH)
DFG Research Classification Scheme
- 205-14 Haematology, Oncology
- 205-23 Reproductive Medicine, Urology