A murine CD44v10-neutralizing antibody has been reported to impair delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Because alopecia areata is characterized by a delayed-type hypersensitivity-like T cell mediated immune response, we addressed the question whether an anti-CD44v10-antibody influences the onset of alopecia areata. Therefore, we used the C3H/HeJ mouse model with the induction of alopecia areata in unaffected mice by the grafting of lesional alopecia areata mouse skin. Six grafted mice were injected (intraperitoneally) with anti-CD44v10, six grafted mice with anti-CD44standard, and six with phosphate-buffered saline only. After 11wk phosphate-buffered saline injected animals on average had developed alopecia areata on 36.8% of their body. The onset of hair loss was slightly delayed and its extent reduced to 17.2% of their body in anti-CD44standard-treated mice. By contrast, five of six anti-CD44v10-treated mice did not show any hair loss and one mouse developed alopecia areata on only 1% of the body. Immunohistochemical examination revealed a marked reduction of perifollicular CD8+ lymphocytes and, to a lesser degree, CD4+ cells as well as a decreased expression of major histo-compatibility complex class I on hair follicle epithelium in anti-CD44v10-treated mice as compared with phosphate-buffered saline or anti-CD44 standard-treated mice. Our data show that anti-CD44v10 is able to inhibit the onset of alopecia areata in C3H/HeJ mice. This might be accomplished by an anti-CD44v10-triggered impairment of immune cell homing (e.g., CD8+ T cells), resulting in a decrease of their number in target tissues.