Background: Postoperative ileus is mediated through a severe inflammation of the tunica muscularis. Inhibition of initially involved muscularis macrophages could be a promising clinical approach to prevent postoperative ileus. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pharmacologic or genetic depletion of these inflammatory cells influences anastomotic healing. Methods: Standardized ileal anastomoses were performed and the mice were randomized into 4 groups: (1) wild type; (2) pharmacologically depleted and inactivated, by means of chlodronate liposomes and gadolinium chloride; (3) heterozygous osteopetrosis littermates; (4) genetically depleted osteopetrosis mutant mice. Tissues from the anastomoses were removed 2, 5, and 14 days after surgery and used for molecular (collagen 1 and 3, matrix metalloproteinases 2, 9, and 13 expressions), histochemical (anastomotic healing score, cross polarization microscopy) and functional (anastomotic bursting pressure) investigations. Results: RT-PCR measurements demonstrated that the investigated genetic events were similar between controls and macrophage-depleted groups. Comparison of histologic healing scores and bursting pressure values showed no significant differences between the groups. Finally, cross polarization microscopy on picrosirius-red stained sections revealed no obvious disturbance in production and deposition of collagen. Conclusion: In our current model we demonstrate that transient perioperative pharmacologic and genetic muscularis macrophage inhibition does not affect intestinal anastomotic healing. These results call for further investigations to establish a pharmacologic prophylaxis for the prevention of postoperative ileus.