Deregulation of synaptic function and neurotransmission has been linked with the development of major depression disorder (MDD). Tianeptine (Tian) has been used as antidepressant with anxiolytic properties and recently as a nootropic to improve cognitive performance, but its mechanism of action is unknown. We conducted a proteomic study on the hippocampal synaptosomal fractions of adult male Wistar rats exposed to chronic social isolation (CSIS, 6 weeks), an animal model of depression and after chronic Tian treatment in controls (nootropic effect) and CSIS-exposed rats (lasting 3 weeks of 6-week CSIS) (therapeutic effect). Increased expression of Syn1 and Camk2-related neurotransmission, vesicle transport and energy processes in Tian-treated controls were found. CSIS led to upregulation of proteins associated with actin cytoskeleton, signaling transduction and glucose metabolism. In CSIS rats, Tian up-regulated proteins involved in mitochondrial energy production, mitochondrial transport and dynamics, antioxidative defense and glutamate clearance, while attenuating the CSIS-increased glycolytic pathway and cytoskeleton organization proteins expression and decreased the expression of proteins involved in V-ATPase and vesicle endocytosis. Our overall findings revealed that synaptic vesicle dynamics, specifically exocytosis, and mitochondria-related energy processes might be key biological pathways modulated by the effective nootropic and antidepressant treatment with Tian and be a potential target for therapeutic efficacy of the stress-related mood disorders.