Background: Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) is highly elevated after cardiac surgery and impacts the postoperative inflammation. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the polymorphisms CATT5–7 (rs5844572/rs3063368,“-794”) and G>C single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs755622,-173) in the MIF gene promoter are related to postoperative outcome. Methods: In 1116 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, the MIF gene polymorphisms were analyzed and serum MIF was measured by ELISA in 100 patients. Results: Patients with at least one extended repeat allele (CATT7) had a significantly higher risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) compared to others (23% vs. 13%; OR 2.01 (1.40–2.88), p = 0.0001). Carriers of CATT7 were also at higher risk of death (1.8% vs. 0.4%; OR 5.12 (0.99–33.14), p = 0.026). The GC genotype was associated with AKI (20% vs. GG/CC:13%, OR 1.71 (1.20–2.43), p = 0.003). Multivariate analyses identified CATT7 predictive for AKI (OR 2.13 (1.46–3.09), p < 0.001) and death (OR 5.58 (1.29–24.04), p = 0.021). CATT7 was associated with higher serum MIF before surgery (79.2 vs. 50.4 ng/mL, p = 0.008). Conclusion: The CATT7 allele associates with a higher risk of AKI and death after cardiac surgery, which might be related to chronically elevated serum MIF. Polymorphisms in the MIF gene may constitute a predisposition for postoperative complications and the assessment may improve risk stratification and therapeutic guidance.