The eyelid and its contribution to eye movements

C. Helmchen*, H. Rambold

*Corresponding author for this work
14 Citations (Scopus)


Lid and electromyographic recordings have contributed significantly to our understanding of clinical lid disorders. Tonic lid disorders (e.g. ptosis, blepharospasm, lid retraction, blepharocolysis) can be distinguished from dynamic lid disorders (lid lag) and from specific deficits of eye-lid coordination (e.g. lid nystagmus). Electromyographic recordings allow the identification of specific lid disorders that benef it from effective therapeutic interventions, e.g., botulinum toxin injections. Rapid lid closure (blink), which exerts substantial neural influence on oculomotor systems without obscuring vision, can be used for the diagnosis of brainstem disease.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNeuro-Ophthalmology: Neuronal Control of Eye Movements
Number of pages22
PublisherS. Karger AG
Publication date01.12.2007
ISBN (Print)978-3-8055-8251-3
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-8055-8251-3
Publication statusPublished - 01.12.2007

Research Areas and Centers

  • Academic Focus: Center for Brain, Behavior and Metabolism (CBBM)


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