Recently, the genetic variant Y402H in the CFH (complement factor H) gene was associated with an increased risk for MI (myocardial infarction) in a prospective Caucasian cohort. In another nested case-control study, however, the CFH-Y402H variant did not carry susceptibility to MI. The aim of the present study was to test for an association between the CFH-Y402H variant and MI in a large case-control sample with a familial background for CAD (coronary artery disease). A total of 2161 individuals from the German MI family study were studied by questionnaire, physical examination and biochemical analyses. MI patients (n=1188; 51.4 + 8.6 years at first MI) were recruited from families with at least two members affected by MI and/or severe CAD. Spouses, sisters-in-law and brothers-in-law respectively, without MI/CAD were included as unaffected controls (n = 973; 56.9 ± 9.8 years). Genotyping was performed using a TaqMan assay. The common Y402H variant in the CFH gene was not associated with classical cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension, obesity, smoking and C-reactive protein serum levels). No association was found between the CFH-Y402H variant and susceptibility to MI. Separate analyses in both men and women revealed no gender-specific influence of the gene variant on cardiovascular risk factors or MI. This investigation was unable to replicate the association between the common CFH-Y402H variant and susceptibility to MI in our large Caucasian population which is enriched for genetic factors. We conclude that the CFH-Y402H variant has no relevant risk-modifying effect in our population.