The clinical and molecular spectrum of androgen insensitivity syndromes

Olaf Hiort*, Gernot H.G. Sinnecker, Paul Martin Holterhus, Esther M. Nitsche, Klaus Kruse

*Corresponding author for this work
89 Citations (Scopus)


Androgen insensitivity syndromes (AIS) are due to end-organ resistance to androgenic steroids in males leading to defective virilization of the external genitalia. The phenotype encompasses a wide array of genital ambiguity and may range from completely female to undervirilized but unequivocally male with infertility. This disorder is caused by mutations of the androgen receptor and is an X-linked recessive trait. We have studied 47 patients with AIS and have characterized the underlying molecular abnormality in the androgen receptor gene. Twenty patients had complete AIS and twenty- seven had partial AIS. Of the latter, 11 were of predominantly female phenotypic appearance and gender was assigned accordingly, while 16 were raised as males. Within the group of complete AIS, two patients had gross deletions within the gene, one had a small deletion, and one had an insertion. In the other patients with complete AIS, as well as all individuals with partial AIS, single nucleotide substitutions within the coding region were detected, each leading to an amino acid alteration. Seven codons were involved in more than one mutation in different cases. In addition, in one patient with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, an elongation of a glutamine-repeat was characterized. We conclude that mutations in the androgen receptor gene may be present throughout the whole coding region. However, our study provides evidence that several mutational hot spots exist.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)218-222
Number of pages5
Publication statusPublished - 03.05.1996

Research Areas and Centers

  • Academic Focus: Center for Brain, Behavior and Metabolism (CBBM)


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