Background: Loosening of prostheses and functional disorders represent a far-reaching problem in the clinic, and the long-term outcomes are essentially determined by wear. Despite all advances, up to 10% of prostheses still fail after 10 years. In particular, more active patients show increased revision rates. Methods: The objective of this thesis is to examine whether the applied microstructures of the articulating surfaces can lead to a reduction in abrasion. Three different structural geometries (dimples, offset lines, grid lines) were defined. In an experimental test setup according to DIN ISO 6474 (Deutsches Institut für Normung, International Organization for Standardization), a tribological test of metal and ceramic pairings was performed using two-dimensional ring-on-disc (RoD) tests. Results: In both material groups, the structuring had a positive effect on the wear behaviour. In the ceramic group, an abrasion reduction of 22.6% was achieved. However, it is important to take into account the limited informative value due to the hardness of the material. Two of the three Cobalt-Chrome-Molybdenum (CoCrMo) structure geometries (grids, offset lines) also showed a significant reduction in abrasion compared to the reference group, with a maximum wear reduction of 55.5%. Conclusion: By reducing abrasion, surface structuring could be used to extend the life of prostheses and minimise the number of revisions.