Stepwise approach for diagnosis and management of Takotsubo syndrome with cardiac imaging tools

Francesco Santoro*, Adriana Mallardi, Alessandra Leopizzi, Enrica Vitale, Thomas Stiermaier, Paolo Trambaiolo, Matteo Di Biase, Ingo Eitel, Natale Daniele Brunetti

*Corresponding author for this work
3 Citations (Scopus)


Takotsubo syndrome is featured by transient left ventricle dysfunction in the absence of significant coronary artery disease, mainly triggered by emotional or physical stress. Its clinical presentation is similar to acute coronary syndrome; therefore, cardiac imaging tools have a crucial role. Coronary angiography is mandatory for exclusion of pathological stenosis. On the other side, transthoracic echocardiography is the first non-invasive imaging modality for an early evaluation of left ventricle systolic and diastolic function. Left ventricle morphologic patterns could be identified according to the localization of wall motion abnormalities. Moreover, an early identification of potential mechanical and electrical complications such as left ventricle outflow tract obstruction, mitral regurgitation, thrombus formation, right ventricular involvement, cardiac rupture, and cardiac rhythm disorders could provide additional information for clinical management and therapy. Because of the dynamic evolution of the syndrome, comprehensive serial echocardiographic examinations should be systematically performed. Advanced techniques, including speckle-tracking echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance, and nuclear imaging can provide mechanistic and pathophysiologic insights into this syndrome. This review focuses on these aspects and provide a stepwise approach of all cardiac imaging tools for the diagnosis and the management of Takotsubo syndrome.

Original languageEnglish
JournalHeart failure reviews
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)545-558
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 03.2022

Research Areas and Centers

  • Centers: Cardiological Center Luebeck (UHZL)

DFG Research Classification Scheme

  • 205-12 Cardiology, Angiology

Cite this