Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 28—Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of a Family with Heterozygous and Compound-Heterozygous Mutations in AFG3L2

Sinem Tunc, Marija Dulovic-Mahlow, Hauke Baumann, Magdalena Khira Baaske, Magdalena Jahn, Johanna Junker, Alexander Münchau, Norbert Brüggemann, Katja Lohmann*

*Corresponding author for this work

Abstract

While heterozygous mutations in the AFG3L2 gene have been linked to spinocerebellar ataxia 28 (SCA28), homozygous mutations in the same gene can cause spastic ataxia 5 (SPAX5). AFG3L2 encodes a mitochondrial ATP-dependent metalloprotease. We here report a SCA28 patient with biallelic AFG3L2 variants and his heterozygous mother. The patient and his mother underwent a detailed neurological examination and fibroblast lines were established. The effect of the two missense variants on mitochondria was assessed by form factor analysis and quantification of mitochondrial proteins (TOMM70, complex V). The 39-year-old index patient presented with a slowly progressive cerebellar gait disorder for 19 years, bilateral ptosis, and dysarthria. A cranial MRI showed mild cerebellar atrophy. He carried two compound-heterozygous, rare, missense variants (c.1847A>G [p.Y616C], c.2167G>A [p.V723M]) in AFG3L2, while his mother was heterozygous for the first change that had previously been described in SPAX5. Altered mitochondrial morphology and interconnectivity, together with reduced protein levels of TOMM70 and complex V (ATPase), suggest mitochondrial structural defects in the patient’s fibroblasts. No significant abnormalities were found in his mother’s fibroblast cultures albeit all measurements were slightly below the control level. We here present a SCA28 patient with compound-heterozygous AFG3L2 variants and demonstrate mitochondrial abnormalities in skin fibroblast cultures from this patient. Thus, AFG3L2 variants should be considered in both slowly progressive ataxias and phenotypes with clinical features reminiscent of mitochondrial disease. Of note, ptosis was present in both mutation carriers and may serve as a red flag in the diagnosis of SCA28.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCerebellum
Volume18
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)817-822
Number of pages6
ISSN1473-4222
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15.08.2019

DFG Research Classification Scheme

  • 206-02 Molecular Biology and Physiology of Nerve and Glial Cells
  • 206-04 Cognitive, Systemic and Behavioural Neurobiology

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