Neuromedin B has been shown to exert an inhibiting effect on food consumption in rats. The corresponding gene NMB maps to chromosome 15q22.3-q23, a region expected to contain a gene for the Bardet-Biedl syndrome type 4 (BBS4). Based on its map position and the putative function of the encoded peptide, NMB can be considered as a candidate gene both for BBS4 and the development of human obesity. To examine its involvement in these phenotypes, we determined the genomic structure of human NMB, and performed a mutation screen in its coding region. In genomic DNA of six BBS4 patients and in a large population sample, two sequence variants were detected: A g.253C→A transversion creating a P73T substitution and a g.401G→A silent mutation changing the stop codon TGA into stop codon TAA. A case-control study with 92 extremely obese patients and 94 underweight students revealed a significant association between the g.401G→A polymorphism and body weight (adjusted p = 0.03), which was confirmed in a validation sample consisting of 95 extremely obese patients, and 95 normal weight and 48 underweight individuals (Mann-Whitney p = 0.02). These results suggest a contribution of NMB or a gene in its close vicinity to genetic weight control in humans.