Background: Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a marker of stroke, especially in the early phase following this event. The aims of this study are to determine the short-term risk of stroke and to evaluate the independent predictors of stroke in patients with TIA who are hospitalized within 48 hours after symptom onset. Methods: During a 36-month period (beginning in November 2007), 3554 patients (mean age: 70.5 ± 13 years; 49.9% female; mean NIHSS score: 1.4 ± 2.5) from 15 hospitals suffering from TIA were prospectively evaluated. Results: Of the 3554 patients, 43 (1.2%) suffered from stroke during hospitalization (6.5 ± 4.3 days). We identified the following independent predictors for stroke after TIA: male sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-5; P = 0.008), age ≥ 65 years (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.4-15; P = 0.01), hyperlipidemia (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.8; P = 0.015), and dysarthria (OR, 2; 95% CI, 1.1-5.0; P = 0.038). Conclusion: Patient characteristics (male sex, age, and hyperlipidemia) and TIA symptom (dysarthria) may be useful in defining stroke after TIA in patients who were hospitalized with TIA.