In this study we hypothesized that there is a correlation between serum leptin levels and body mass indices within patients with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa during a twelve weeks' course of in-patient treatment. We evaluated leptin levels weekly in female in-patients with anorexia (n = 17) or bulimia nervosa (n = 18). Only patients with anorexia nervosa were therapeutically encouraged to gain weight throughout the treatment episode. For the whole cohort, body mass indices and serum leptin levels were highly correlated upon admission (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). The median intra-individual correlation in the anorexia group was higher than in the bulimia group (0.63 and 0.39, respectively). The intra-individual correlations were higher in those anorexia nervosa patients who showed increments of their body mass index within the observation span. This dynamic aspect is important specifically in patients with anorexia nervosa during therapeutically induced weight gain.