Second generation governance for second generation GM


In science studies of genomic technologies, the issue of how to categorise types and phases of development in biotechnology is far from settled. Some speak of a distinction between first and second generation genomics, some add a third generation, and some substitute ʼnext generation’ for either the third or both the second and third generations of genomic products. In this chapter, the term ‘second generation’ will be used quite loosely to point to new rounds of innovation and progress in the development of transgenic crops and animals. The first lines focused mainly on reducing chemical input and increasing yields, for instance by introducing genes for pesticide tolerance, pest resistance, or accelerated growth. For the sake of simplicity I will not further distinguish between second and higher generations here. Second generation genetically modified (GM) agricultural organisms include: plants with improved agronomic performance achieved by targeting traits; plants modified to reduce the costs associated with food processing, such as increased oil content or delayed ripening; cis-gene plants modified to reduce their susceptibility to diseases by introducing genes from wild variants of the same species; GM plants that are going to be utilised as producers of drugs or vaccines; and plants producing raw material for industrial applications like starch, fuels, or textiles (Myhr 2005: 44; Stirn 2005: 82; Marshall 2010).

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRegulating Next Generation Agri-Food Biotechnologies : Lessons from European, North American and Asian experiences
EditorsMichael Howlett, David Laycock
Number of pages19
Place of PublicationLondon
PublisherTaylor and Francis
Publication date2012
Pages237 - 255
ISBN (Print)9780415693615
ISBN (Electronic)9781136338441
Publication statusPublished - 2012

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