Robust real-time robot-world calibration for robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation

Lars Richter*, Floris Ernst, Alexander Schlaefer, Achim Schweikard

*Corresponding author for this work
16 Citations (Scopus)


Background: For robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), the magnetic coil is placed on the patient's head by a robot. As the robotized TMS system requires tracking of head movements, robot and tracking camera need to be calibrated. However, for robotized TMS in a clinical setting, such calibration is required frequently. Mounting/unmounting a marker to the end effector and moving the robot into different poses is impractical. Moreover, if either system is moved during treatment, recalibration is required. Methods: To overcome this limitation, we propose to directly track a marker at link three of the articulated arm. Using forward kinematics and a constant marker transform to link three, the calibration can be performed instantly. Results: Our experimental results indicate an accuracy similar to standard hand-eye calibration approaches. It also outperforms classical hand-held navigated TMS systems. Conclusion: This robust online calibration greatly enhances the system's user-friendliness and safety.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)414-422
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 01.12.2011


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