Risk factors and sequelae of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita: A propensity-matched global study in 1,344 patients

Khalaf Kridin, Artem Vorobyev, Cristian Papara, David A. De Luca, Katja Bieber, Ralf J. Ludwig*

*Corresponding author for this work
1 Citation (Scopus)


Identification of risk factors and sequelae of any given disease is of key importance. For common diseases, primary prevention and disease management are based on this knowledge. For orphan diseases, identification of risk factors and sequelae has been challenging. With the advent of large databases, e.g., TriNetX, this can now be addressed. We used TriNetX to identify risk factors and sequelae of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA), a severe and orphan autoimmune disease. To date, there is only enigmatic information on EBA comorbidity. We recruited 1,344 EBA patients in the Global Collaborative Network of TriNetX. Using the “explore outcomes” function we identified 55 diagnoses with a different prevalence between EBA and no-EBA patients. We next performed propensity-matched, retrospective cohort studies in which we determined the risk of EBA development following any of the identified 55 diseases. Here, 31/55 diseases were identified as risk factors for subsequent EBA. Importantly, the highest risk for EBA were other chronic inflammatory diseases (CID), especially lupus erythematosus and lichen planus. Lastly, we determined the risk to develop any of the identified diseases after EBA diagnosis. Here, 38/55 diseases were identified as sequelae. Notably, EBA patients showed an increased risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disease, and thrombosis. Furthermore, the risk for CIDs, especially lupus erythematosus and lichen planus, was elevated. These insights into risk factors and sequelae of EBA are not only of clinical relevance, e.g., optimizing cardiovascular disease risk, but in addition, point to shared pathogenetic pathways between EBA and other inflammatory diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1103533
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Pages (from-to)1103533
Publication statusPublished - 26.01.2023

Research Areas and Centers

  • Academic Focus: Center for Infection and Inflammation Research (ZIEL)
  • Centers: Center for Research on Inflammation of the Skin (CRIS)

DFG Research Classification Scheme

  • 204-05 Immunology
  • 205-19 Dermatology
  • 205-22 Clinical Immunology and Allergology

Cite this