Objective To guide nosology and classification of patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) based on phenotype and presence or absence of ANCA. Methods Organ manifestations and ANCA status were retrospectively analyzed based on the presence or not of predefined definite vasculitis features or surrogates of vasculitis in patients asthma, eosinophilia, and at least one systemic organ manifestation attributable to systemic disease. Results The study population included 157 patients (mean age 49.4 ± 14.1), with a follow-up of 7.4 ± 6.4 years. Patients with ANCA (31%) more frequently had weight loss, myalgias, arthralgias, biopsy-proven vasculitis, glomerulonephritis on biopsy, hematuria, leukocytoclastic capillaritis and/or eosinophilic infiltration of arterial wall on biopsy, and other renal disease. A total of 41% of patients had definite vasculitis manifestations (37%) or strong surrogates of vasculitis (4%), of whom only 53% had ANCA. Mononeuritis multiplex was associated with systemic vasculitis (p = 0.005) and with the presence of ANCA (p < 0.001). Overall, 59% of patients had polyangiitis as defined by definite vasculitis, strong surrogate of vasculitis, mononeuritis multiplex, and/or ANCA with at least one systemic manifestation other than ENT or respiratory. Patients with polyangiitis had more systemic manifestations including arthralgias (p = 0.02) and renal disease (p = 0.024), had higher peripheral eosinophilia (p = 0.027), and a trend towards less myocarditis (p = 0.057). Using predefined criteria of vasculitis and surrogates of vasculitis, ANCA alone were found to be insufficient to categorise patients with vasculitis features. Conclusion We suggest a revised nomenclature and definition for EGPA and a new proposed entity referred to as hypereosinophilic asthma with systemic (non vasculitic) manifestations.
Research Areas and Centers
- Academic Focus: Center for Infection and Inflammation Research (ZIEL)