Background: Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome (HSP) was first reported in 1959 as oculocutaneous albinism with bleeding abnormalities, and now consists of 11 distinct heterogenic genetic disorders that are caused by mutations in four protein complexes: AP-3, BLOC1, BLOC2, and BLOC3. Most of the patients show albinism and a bleeding diathesis; additional features may present depending on the nature of a defective protein complex. The subtypes 3 and 4 have been known for mutations in HSP3 and HSP4 genes, respectively. Methods: In this study, two Pakhtun consanguineous families, ALB-09 and ALB-10, were enrolled for clinical and molecular diagnoses. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) of the index patient in each family followed by Sanger sequencing of all available samples was performed using 3Billion. Inc South Korea rare disease diagnostics services. Results: The affected individuals of families ALB-09 and ALB-10 showed typical phenotypes of HPS such as oculocutaneous albinism, poor vision, nystagmus, nystagmus-induced involuntary head nodding, bleeding diathesis, and enterocolitis; however, immune system weakness was not recorded. WES analyses of one index patient revealed a novel nonsense variant (NM_032383.4: HSP3; c.2766T > G) in family ALB-09 and a five bp deletion (NM_001349900.2: HSP4; c.1180_1184delGTTCC) variant in family ALB-10. Sanger sequencing confirmed homozygous segregation of the disease alleles in all affected individuals of the respective family. Conclusions: The substitution c.2766T > G creates a premature protein termination at codon 922 in HPS3, replacing tyrosine amino acid with a stop codon (p.Tyr922Ter), while the deletion mutation c.1180_1184delGTTCC leads to a reading frameshift and a premature termination codon adding 23 abnormal amino acids to HSP4 protein (p:Val394Pro395fsTer23). To the best of our knowledge, the two novel variants identified in HPS3 and HPS4 genes causing Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome are the first report from the Pakhtun Pakistani population. Our work expands the pathogenic spectrum of HPS3 and HPS4 genes, provides successful molecular diagnostics, and helps the families in genetic counselling and reducing the disease burden in their future generations.
Research Areas and Centers
- Research Area: Medical Genetics