Nerve conduits are nonneural, hollow tubular structures designed to bridge the gap of a sectioned nerve, to protect the nerve from scar formation, and to guide the regenerating fibers into the distal nerve stump. In the 8-year experience of our department, four patients aged 14 to 50 years had an unsuccessful implantation of a nerve conduit (NeuraGen, Integra, Plainsboro, NJ). In these four patients, the collagen tubes were replaced by an autogenous nerve graft. The histological specimens showed characteristic histological findings of a scar neuroma without any signs of foreign body reaction in three cases and with minimal foreign body reaction in one case. The collagen nerve tube was completely resorbed in all cases after a time period of 6 to 17 months and could not be detected marco- or microscopically. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the English and German literature describing the histological characteristics of explanted collagen nerve tubes in humans.