Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a promising neuroimaging tool for the study of human cognition. Here, we show that event-related NIRS is able to detect age-related differences in the neural processing in a simple visual Go/NoGo task using a relatively fast (stimulus onset asynchrony approx. 1.4. s) event-related design together with a model-based analysis approach. Subjects were healthy young (< 30. years) and elderly (> 60. years) adults. Behaviorally, old adults were slower but more accurate than young adults. The event-related analysis approach of NIRS data allowed us to contrast activation of successfully inhibited NoGo stimuli with that of correctly answered Go stimuli. Both age-groups showed frontal activation differences between these events in oxy- (HbO; increase) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbR; decrease). Between age groups, differences in HbR were found in right dorsolateral frontal (old. > young), right temporal/postcentral/precentral and left precentral/inferior frontal (young. > old) channels. These differences are in line with age-associated activation changes in inhibition detected with functional magnetic resonance imaging. The present study successfully separated the neural correlates of response inhibition from errors of commission/omission and provides data from multiple simultaneously recorded optodes. Furthermore, these results demonstrate the feasibility of using NIRS to investigate neural processes related to aging and dementia, in particular in patients for which other neuroimaging techniques are contraindicated. In the future, functional phenotyping of successful aging in respect to executive performance may be feasible.