Psychological problems in children with cerebral palsy: A cross-sectional European study

Jackie Parkes*, Melanie White-Koning, Heather O. Dickinson, Ute Thyen, Catherine Arnaud, Eva Beckung, Jerome Fauconnier, Marco Marcelli, Vicki McManus, Susan I. Michelsen, Kathryn Parkinson, Allan Colver

*Corresponding author for this work
133 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: To describe psychological symptoms in 8-12-year-old children with cerebral palsy; to investigate predictors of these symptoms and their impact on the child and family. Design: A cross-sectional multi-centre survey. Participants: Eight hundred and eighteen children with cerebral palsy, aged 8-12 years, identified from population-based registers of cerebral palsy in eight European regions and from multiple sources in one further region. Main outcome measures: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)P4-16 and the Total Difficulties Score (TDS) dichotomised into normal/borderline (TDS ≤ 16) versus abnormal (TDS > 16). Statistical analysis: Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression to relate the presence of psychological symptoms to child and family characteristics. Results: About a quarter of the children had TDS > 16 indicating significant psychological symptoms, most commonly in the domain Peer Problems. Better gross motor function, poorer intellect, more pain, having a disabled or ill sibling and living in a town were independently associated with TDS > 16. The risk of TDS > 16 was odds ratio (OR) =.2 (95% CI:.1 to.3) comparing children with the most and least severe functional limitations; OR = 3.2 (95%CI: 2.1 to 4.8) comparing children with IQ < 70 and others; OR = 2.7 (95% CI: 1.5 to 4.6) comparing children in severe pain and others; OR = 2.7 (95% CI:1.6 to 4.6) comparing children with another disabled sibling or OR = 1.8 (95%CI: 1.2 to 2.8) no siblings and others; OR = 1.8 (95% CI: 1.1 to 2.8) comparing children resident in a town and others. Among parents who reported their child to have psychological problems, 95% said they had lasted over a year, 37% said they distressed their child and 42% said they burdened the family at least 'quite a lot'. Conclusions: A significant proportion of children with cerebral palsy have psychological symptoms or social impairment sufficiently severe to warrant referral to specialist services. Care must be taken in the assessment and management of children with cerebral palsy to ensure psychological problems are not overlooked and potentially preventable risk factors like pain are treated effectively. The validity of the SDQ for children with severe disability warrants further assessment.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)405-413
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 04.2008

Research Areas and Centers

  • Academic Focus: Center for Brain, Behavior and Metabolism (CBBM)


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