PRRT2 gene mutations From paroxysmal dyskinesia to episodic ataxia and hemiplegic migraine

Alice R. Gardiner, Kailash P. Bhatia, Maria Stamelou, Russell C. Dale, Manju A. Kurian, Susanne A. Schneider, G. M. Wali, Tim Counihan, Anthony H. Schapira, Sian D. Spacey, Enza Maria Valente, Laura Silveira-Moriyama, Hélio A.G. Teive, Salmo Raskin, Josemir W. Sander, Andrew Lees, Tom Warner, Dimitri M. Kullmann, Nicholas W. Wood, Michael HannaHenry Houlden*

*Corresponding author for this work
    80 Citations (Scopus)


    Objective: The proline-rich transmembrane protein (PRRT2) gene was recently identified using exome sequencing as the cause of autosomal dominant paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) with or without infantile convulsions (IC) (PKD/IC syndrome). Episodic neurologic disorders, such as epilepsy, migraine, and paroxysmal movement disorders, often coexist and are thought to have a shared channel-related etiology. To investigate further the frequency, spectrum, and phenotype of PRRT2 mutations, we analyzed this gene in 3 large series of episodic neurologic disorders with PKD/IC, episodic ataxia (EA), and hemiplegic migraine (HM). Methods: The PRRT2 gene was sequenced in 58 family probands/sporadic individuals with PKD/ IC, 182 with EA, 128 with HM, and 475 UK and 96 Asian controls. Results: PRRT2 genetic mutations were identified in 28 out of 58 individuals with PKD/IC (48%), 1/182 individuals with EA, and 1/128 individuals with HM. A number of loss-of-function and coding missense mutations were identified; the most common mutation found was the p.R217Pfs*8 insertion. Males were more frequently affected than females (ratio 52:32). There was a high proportion of PRRT2 mutations found in families and sporadic cases with PKD associated with migraine or HM (10 out of 28). One family had EA with HM and another large family had typical HM alone. Conclusions: This work expands the phenotype of mutations in the PRRT2 gene to include the frequent occurrence ofmigraine and HMwith PKD/IC, and the association ofmutations with EA and HM and with familial HM alone. We have also extended the PRRT2 mutation type and frequency in PKD and other episodic neurologic disorders.

    Original languageEnglish
    Issue number21
    Pages (from-to)2115-2121
    Number of pages7
    Publication statusPublished - 20.11.2012


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