Prolonged Door-to-Balloon Time Leads to Endothelial Glycocalyx Damage and Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Carl Vahldieck*, Benedikt Fels, Samuel Löning, Laura Nickel, Joachim Weil, Kristina Kusche-Vihrog

*Corresponding author for this work


Damage to the endothelial glycocalyx (eGC) has been reported during acute ischemic events like ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In STEMI, a door-to-balloon time (D2B) of <60 min was shown to reduce mortality and nonfatal complications. Here, we hypothesize that eGC condition is associated with D2B duration and endothelial function during STEMI. One hundred and twenty-six individuals were analyzed in this study (STEMI patients vs. age-/sex-matched healthy volunteers). After stimulating endothelial cells with patient/control sera, the eGC’s nanomechanical properties (i.e., height/stiffness) were analyzed using the atomic force microscopy-based nanoindentation technique. eGC components were determined via ELISA, and measurements of nitric oxide levels (NO) were based on chemiluminescence. eGC height/stiffness (both p < 0.001), as well as NO concentration (p < 0.001), were reduced during STEMI. Notably, the D2B had a strong impact on the endothelial condition: a D2B > 60 min led to significantly higher serum concentrations of eGC components (syndecan-1: p < 0.001/heparan sulfate: p < 0.001/hyaluronic acid: p < 0.0001). A D2B > 60 min led to the pronounced loss of eGC height/stiffness (both, p < 0.001) with reduced NO concentrations (p < 0.01), activated the complement system (p < 0.001), and prolonged the hospital stay (p < 0.01). An increased D2B led to severe eGC shedding, with endothelial dysfunction in a temporal context. eGC components and pro-inflammatory mediators correlated with a prolonged D2B, indicating a time-dependent immune reaction during STEMI, with a decreased NO concentration. Thus, D2B is a crucial factor for eGC damage during STEMI. Clinical evaluation of the eGC condition might serve as an important predictor for the endothelial function of STEMI patients in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2924
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 11.2023

Research Areas and Centers

  • Centers: Cardiological Center Luebeck (UHZL)

DFG Research Classification Scheme

  • 205-04 Physiology
  • 205-12 Cardiology, Angiology
  • 201-03 Cell Biology

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