Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) belongs to the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides and is further characterized by severe eosinophilia and, often, granulomatous inflammation. The therapeutic efficacy of recombinant interferon-α (IFN-α) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) blockade point toward a central role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of CSS. Recent data show that, in contrast to other primary systemic vasculitides, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) secrete not only large amounts of T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokines, particulary IFN-γ, but also release T helper type 2 (Th1) cytokines such as interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13). Interleukin-5 is the most potent stimulator of eosinophil production and functional activation of mature eosinophils, the key effector cells in CSS. Data are presented showing that PBMCs from patients with CSS cultured with T cell-specific stimuli secrete significantly increased amounts of IL-5 compared with healthy controls, suggesting that IL-5 contributes substantially to the development of eosinophilia in CSS. As recombinant IFN-α downregulates IL-5 production of CD4+ T cells in vitro, the increased secretion of IL-5 in patients with CSS may provide the clue for the therapeutic efficacy of recombinant IFN-α in the disease. Variations in the balance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines at different disease stages could contribute to the distinct clinical courses seen in patients with CSS, which can range from prominent Th1-mediated generalized vasculitis and granulomatous inflammation on one end of the spectrum to Th2-mediated systemic hypereosinophilia on the other. Although the association of ANCAs with CSS point toward an autoimmune origin of the disease, there is no direct evidence as yet for a direct pathogenic role of ANCAs in CSS.
Research Areas and Centers
- Academic Focus: Center for Infection and Inflammation Research (ZIEL)