Prognostic Usefulness of the Ballooning Pattern in Patients With Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

Thomas Stiermaier, Christian Möller, Tobias Graf, Charlotte Eitel, Steffen Desch, Holger Thiele, Ingo Eitel*

*Corresponding author for this work
9 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the prognostic impact of different ballooning patterns in patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC). A total of 285 consecutive patients with TTC were included. Clinical characteristics and short- and long-term outcomes were compared between patients with typical apical ballooning (n = 204) and patients with an atypical ballooning pattern including midventricular and basal ballooning (n = 81). Patients with typical apical ballooning were significantly older (73.3 ± 10.2 vs 68.4 ± 10.3 years; p <0.01) and had a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (25.5% vs 12.3%; p = 0.02). The initial left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction was significantly lower in case of apical ballooning (41.5 ± 10.4% vs 46.9 ± 10.9%; p <0.01) but recovered to normal values in both groups (58.4 ± 8.0 vs 59.7 ± 7.0; p = 0.25). Although 28-day mortality did not differ significantly (p = 0.10), typical apical ballooning was associated with an increased 6-month (13.4% vs 1.3%; hazard ratio [HR] 10.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.47 to 79.66; p = 0.02) and long-term mortality rates (28.9% vs 14.5%; HR 2.24, 95% CI 1.17 to 4.71; p = 0.02). A landmark analysis which included only patients who survived the first 6 months after the initial event demonstrated similar mortality rates in patients with typical (17.9%) and atypical (13.3%) ballooning (HR 1.36, 95% CI 0.67 to 2.79; p = 0.40). In conclusion, in patients with TTC, typical apical ballooning is associated with more severe LV dysfunction at acute presentation and higher mortality rates within the first 6 months after the initial event. After complete recovery of LV function, prognosis is similar in patients with typical and atypical ballooning patterns.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiology
Issue number11
Pages (from-to)1737-1741
Number of pages5
Publication statusPublished - 01.12.2016

Research Areas and Centers

  • Centers: Cardiological Center Luebeck (UHZL)

DFG Research Classification Scheme

  • 205-12 Cardiology, Angiology


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