Prodromal X-Linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism is Characterized by a Subclinical Motor Phenotype

Julia Steinhardt, Henrike Hanssen, Marcus Heldmann, Andreas Sprenger, Björn-Hergen Laabs, Aloysius Domingo, Charles Jourdan Reyes, Jannik Prasuhn, Max Brand, Raymond Rosales, Thomas F Münte, Christine Klein, Ana Westenberger, Jean Q Oropilla, Cid Diesta, Norbert Brüggemann


BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis in patients with neurodegenerative disorders is crucial to initiate disease-modifying therapies at a time point where progressive neurodegeneration can still be modified.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether motor or non-motor signs of the disease occur as indicators of a prodromal phase of X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP), a highly-penetrant monogenic movement disorder with striking basal ganglia pathology.

METHODS: In addition to a comprehensive clinical assessment, sensor-based balance and gait analyses were performed in non-manifesting mutation carriers (NMCs), healthy controls (HCs), and patients with XDP. Gradient-boosted trees (GBT) methodology was utilized to classify groups of interest.

RESULTS: There were no clinically overt disease manifestations in the NMCs. Balance analysis, however, revealed a classification accuracy of 90% for the comparison of NMC versus HC. For the gait analysis, the best-performing GBT-based model showed a balanced accuracy of 95% (NMC vs. HC; walking at maximum speed). Using a separate analysis of genetic modifiers, several gait parameters correlated strongly with the estimated age at disease onset in the NMC group.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study unraveled balance and gait abnormalities in NMCs that preceded the onset of XDP. These findings demonstrate prodromal motor changes among NMCs who will develop XDP with a very high likelihood in the future. Gait abnormalities had a predictive value for the estimated age at onset highlighting the impact of genetic modifiers in personalized treatment in monogenic neurodegenerative disorders. © 2022 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMovement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Issue number7
Pages (from-to)1474-1482
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 07.2022


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