Background Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is associated with a considerable risk of complications during the acute phase and substantial long-term mortality rates. Concomitant atrial fibrillation may have an impact on outcome in these patients. Aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and prognostic relevance of atrial fibrillation in TTS. Methods We performed an international, multicenter study including 387 TTS patients consecutively enrolled at 3 centers. Atrial fibrillation was defined as known history before admission or documented episodes during hospital stay. Long-term mortality was evaluated in median 2.9 years after the acute event. Results Atrial fibrillation was found in 97 TTS patients (25.1%) and was associated with older age (p < 0.01), less emotional triggers (p = 0.03), higher incidence of cardiogenic shock (p < 0.01), lower left ventricular ejection fraction (p < 0.01), and a prolonged hospital stay (p < 0.01). Determinants of atrial fibrillation at admission (n = 34 patients; 9.0%) in multivariate logistic regression analysis were age (p = 0.001) and cardiogenic shock (p = 0.013). Long-term mortality was significantly higher in TTS patients with as compared to patients without atrial fibrillation (35.2% versus 15.3%; hazard ratio 3.02, 95% confidence interval 1.90–4.78; p < 0.001). In multivariate Cox regression analysis atrial fibrillation was identified as an independent determinant of outcome even after adjustment for clinical variables, left ventricular functional parameters (ballooning pattern, ejection fraction), and cardiogenic shock. Conclusions In TTS patients, atrial fibrillation is frequent and associated with increased long-term mortality rates. Furthermore, our study identifies atrial fibrillation as an independent predictor of outcome and a potential tool for risk stratification in TTS.
Research Areas and Centers
- Academic Focus: Center for Brain, Behavior and Metabolism (CBBM)