Presence of Cutaneous Complement Deposition Distinguishes between Immunological and Histological Features of Bullous Pemphigoid-Insights from a Retrospective Cohort Study

Abstract

The practical implications of complement deposition in direct immunofluorescence (DIF) microscopy and its influence on the disease phenotype are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate whether the presence of complement deposition in DIF microscopy gives rise to differences in the morphological, immunological, and histological characteristics of patients with BP (bullous pemphigoid). We performed a retrospective study encompassing patients with BP in a specialized tertiary referral center. Logistic regression model was utilized to identify variables independently associated with complement deposition. The study included 233 patients with BP, of whom 196 (84.1%) demonstrated linear C3 deposition along the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) in DIF analysis. BP patients with C3 deposition had higher mean (SD) levels (645.2 (1418.5) vs. 172.5 (243.9) U/mL; p < 0.001) and seropositivity rate (86.3% vs.64.9%; p = 0.002) of anti-BP180 NC16A and less prevalent neutrophilic infiltrate in lesional skin specimens (29.8% vs. 52.4%; p = 0.041). C3 deposition was found positively associated with the detection of anti-BP180 NC16A autoantibodies (OR, 4.25; 95% CI, 1.38-13.05) and inversely associated with the presence of neutrophils in lesional skin (OR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.09-8.33). To conclude, complement deposition influences the immunological and histological features of BP. These findings are in line with experimental data describing the pathogenic role of complement in BP.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Volume9
Issue number12
ISSN2077-0383
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

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