Prediction of Perioperative Death Following Surgery for Renal Cell Carcinoma with Vein Involvement: A Retrospective Study

Meryem Akkoyun, Axel S. Merseburger*, Mario W. Kramer, Thomas R. Herrmann, Markus A. Kuczyk, Christoph A. von Klot

*Corresponding author for this work


Introduction: Advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) shows a propensity for extending into the tributaries of the renal veins, which poses a notable surgical challenge. In this study we addressed the question as to whether patients with RCC and vein involvement can be identified as having a significant risk of immediate death associated with surgery preoperatively. Materials and Methods: A total of 118 patients with RCC and vein involvement from February 1999 until November 2012 were evaluated. The association of early mortality within 60 days after the intervention was tested with various covariates including: age, body mass index (BMI), preoperative serum C-reactive protein, preoperative serum creatinine, preoperative hemoglobin level, tumor diameter, suspicion of metastasis on prior computed tomography, documented cardiac insufficiency, extent of vein invasion, prior myocardial infarction, TNM stage, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, New York Heart Association classification and Karnofsky index. A multiple logistic regression model was used to test all risk factors including the combination of an elevated BMI with an impaired Karnofsky index with all covariates. Results: A total of 17 patients died within 60 days after the operation with most patients dying from cardio-embolic complications during the first two quartiles of the observation, while later deaths were mostly attributable to sequelae of surgical complications. None of the tested risk factors were significantly associated with early mortality in the logistic regression model. The presence of an elevated BMI (≥30 kg/m2) in combination with a Karnofsky index ≤70% predicted early death in univariate (p = 0.006) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.023). Death rates for patients with BMI <30 kg/m2 and Karnofsky index >70%, BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 or Karnofsky index ≤70%, BMI ≥30 kg/m2 and Karnofsky index ≤70% were 5%, 14.8% and 37.5%, respectively. Conclusion: The risk of early death is dramatically elevated to more than one-third of cases with elevated BMI and unfavorable Karnofsky index in patients with RCC and vein involvement. Patients need to be counseled in this regard especially when planning cytoreductive treatment without curative intent.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAdvances in Therapy
Issue number8
Pages (from-to)783-797
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 08.09.2015


Dive into the research topics of 'Prediction of Perioperative Death Following Surgery for Renal Cell Carcinoma with Vein Involvement: A Retrospective Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this