Background: Vascular remodeling generated by reactive oxygen species contributes to aneurysm formation. The NADPH oxidase system is a major source of superoxide anion not only in phagocytes, but also in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Polymorphisms of p22phox, an essential component of the NADPH oxidase system, are found to be associated with atherosclerosis, while a recent study found a significant association between the 214C>T polymorphism and the occurrence of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the relationship of five polymorphisms of the p22phox gene and the occurrence of cerebral aneurysms. Methods: The study population consisted of 113 patients with intracranial aneurysms and 53 control subjects. The 214C>T polymorphism was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, while polymorphisms 381T>C, 480G>A, 521C>T, and *24A>G were analyzed by direct sequencing of exon 6 and adjacent intronic sequences. Results: The analysis of a primary study sample comprising 35 cases and 28 controls failed to show a significant association between any of the five polymorphisms and the occurrence of intracranial aneurysms using both allele frequencies and genotypes (all nominal p > 0.05). Although there was a deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in cases at the 521C>T locus (nominal p < 0.05), this could not be confirmed in a second study sample of 78 patients. Haplotypes were constructed regarding three frequent polymorphisms (214C>T, 521C>T, and *24A>G); haplotype frequencies in cases and controls were not significantly different. Conclusion: Although polymorphisms of the p22phox gene located in the coding region and the 3′-untranslated region were reported to be associated with atherosclerosis and cerebrovascular disease, our data provide evidence that there is no association between these polymorphisms and the occurrence of cerebral aneurysms in Caucasians.