Etiology The role of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens in nosocomial infections is increasing. However national data in Germany do not show significant changes in the spectrum of pathogens in hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). The assessment of individual risk factors for MDR pathogens remains central for the selection of empiric antimicrobial therapy. Diagnostics Thoracic ultrasound may be added as part of the diagnostic work-up and for the detection of complications. Procalcitonin and lactate testing are recommended for the diagnosis of sepsis/septic shock in addition to sepsis scores. Detection of influenza virus by PCR from respiratory samples is recommended during influenza season. Antimicrobial treatment Empiric combination therapy is only recommended for patients with severe HAP (invasive ventilation, septic shock) and high risk of infection with MDR pathogens, since combination therapy has only been shown to be superior in this situation. Deescalation according to clinical and microbiological criteria is highly recommended. In patients with septic organ dysfunction/septic shock antibiotic dosing of adequately choosen betalactams according to Pk/Pd criteria is endorsed. Aerosolised antibiotics adjunctive aerosolised therapy should only be performed in experienced centres. This remains an option for patients with detection of MDR pathogens, who are not deemed successfully treatable with systemic therapy alone.
Research Areas and Centers
- Academic Focus: Center for Infection and Inflammation Research (ZIEL)