Normal Variations

Enno Schmidt*

*Corresponding author for this work


This chapter describes normal variations of the oral cavity including linea alba, morsicatio, imprints, Fordyce granules, leukoedema, physiological pigmentation, torus, varices, and retrocuspid papilla. In addition, reactive fibroma, leukoplakia and aphthae are mentioned due to their high prevalence and benign nature. In suspicious cases of leukoplakia, malignancy needs to be excluded by histopathology.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationDiseases of the Oral Mucosa : Study Guide and Review
Number of pages6
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Publication date01.01.2022
ISBN (Print)9783030828035
ISBN (Electronic)9783030828042
Publication statusPublished - 01.01.2022

Research Areas and Centers

  • Academic Focus: Center for Infection and Inflammation Research (ZIEL)
  • Centers: Center for Research on Inflammation of the Skin (CRIS)

DFG Research Classification Scheme

  • 205-19 Dermatology

Cite this