Normal values for the full visual field, corrected for ageand reaction time, using semiautomated kinetic testing on the octopus 900 perimeter

Julia Grobbel, Janko Dietzsch, Chris A. Johnson*, Reinhard Vonthein, Katarina Stingl, Richard G. Weleber, Ulrich Schiefer

*Corresponding author for this work
16 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose:To determine normal values of the visual field (VF), corrected for age and reaction time (RT) for semiautomated kinetic perimetry (SKP) on the Octopus 900 perimeter, create a model describing the age-dependency of these values, and assess test–retest reliability for each isopter. Methods:Eighty-six eyes of 86 ophthalmologically healthy subjects (age 11–79 years, 34 males, 52 females) underwent full-field kinetic perimetry with the Octopus 900 instrument. Stimulus size, luminance, velocity, meridional angle, subject age, and their interactions, were used to create a smooth multiple regression mathematical model (V/4e, III/4e, I/4e, I/3e, I/2e, I/1e, and I/1a isopters). Fourteen subjects (2 from each of 7 age groups) were evaluated on three separate sessions to assess test–retest reliability of the isopters. Reaction time (RT) was tested by presenting 12 designated RT-vectors between 10° and 20° within the seeing areas for the III/4e isopter (stimulus velocity, 3°/second). Four RT- vectors were presented at the nasal (0° or 180°), superotemporal (45°), and inferior (270°) meridians. Results:The model fit was excellent (r2= 0.94). The test–retest variability was less than 5°, and the median decrease in this deviation attributed to aging, per decade, for all age groups and for all stimulus sizes was 0.8°. No significant learning effect was observed for any age group or isopter. Conclusion:Age-corrected and RT-corrected normative threshold values for full-field kinetic perimetry can be adequately described by a smooth multiple linear regression mathematical model. Translational Relevance:A description of the entire kinetic VF is useful for assessing a full characterization of VF sensitivity, determining function losses associated with ocular and neurologic diseases, and for providing a more comprehensive analysis of structure–function relationships.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5
JournalTranslational Vision Science and Technology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 03.2016


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