Rationale:Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is the most common cause for bacterial exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent investigations suggest the participation of the inflammasome in the pathomechanism of airway inflammation. The inflammasome is a cytosolic protein complex important for early inflammatory responses, by processing Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) to its active form.Objectives:Since inflammasome activation has been described for a variety of inflammatory diseases, we investigated whether this pathway plays a role in NTHi infection of the airways.Methods:A murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7), human alveolar macrophages and human lung tissue (HLT) were stimulated with viable or non-viable NTHi and/or nigericin, a potassium ionophore. Secreted cytokines were measured with ELISA and participating proteins detected via Western Blot or immunohistochemistry.Measurements and Main Results:Western Blot analysis of cells and immunohistochemistry of lung tissue detected the inflammasome key components NLRP3 and caspase-1 after stimulation, leading to a significant induction of IL-1β expression (RAW: control at the lower detection limit vs. NTHi 505±111pg/ml, p<0.01). Inhibition of caspase-1 in human lung tissue led to a significant reduction of IL-1β and IL-18 levels (IL-1β: NTHi 24 h 17423±3198pg/ml vs. NTHi+Z-YVAD-FMK 6961±1751pg/ml, p<0.01).Conclusion:Our data demonstrate the upregulation of the NRLP3-inflammasome during NTHi-induced inflammation in respiratory cells and tissues. Our findings concerning caspase-1 dependent IL-1β release suggest a role for the inflammasome in respiratory tract infections with NTHi which may be relevant for the pathogenesis of bacterial exacerbations in COPD.