Nonmotor symptoms in genetic Parkinson disease

Meike Kasten, Lena Kertelge, Norbert Brüggemann, Joyce Van Der Vegt, Alexander Schmidt, Vera Tadic, Carsten Buhmann, Susanne Steinlechner, Maria Isabel Behrens, Alfredo Ramirez, Ferdinand Binkofski, Hartwig Siebner, Heiner Raspe, Johann Hagenah, Rebekka Lencer, Christine Klein*

*Corresponding author for this work
39 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: To review current knowledge on nonmotor symptoms (NMS), particularly psychiatric features, in genetic Parkinson disease (PD) and to provide original data for genetic and idiopathic PD. Data Sources: A MEDLINE search using Parkinson and known PD genes focused on the presence of depression, anxiety, hallucinations, and dementia was performed. Original data from 82 outpatients with idiopathic (n=55) and genetic (n=27) PD were obtained. Study Selection: All studies including information on NMS and patients with genetic PD. Data Extraction: Study methods and clinical and genetic information were summarized. Data Synthesis: The literature search yielded 1855 citations; 305 included genetic information on PD patients, of which 119 also contained information on any type of NMS (990 cases). Availability of information varied by gene and type of NMS; studies differed by recruitment and examination method. Literature search and original data showed high frequencies of the following NMS: depression, 8% to 37% (literature) and 33% to 40% (our data); anxiety, 7% to 37% (literature) and 10% to 22% (our data); hallucinations,3%to 23% (literature) and 23% to 29% (our data); and dementia, 5% to 26% (literature), absent in our own data. Conclusions: Data onNMSin genetic PD are limited. Specific data needs include a systematic approach to NMS assessment reporting permitting comparability of studies. Overall, the frequency of NMS in genetic PD does not appear to be higher and may even be lower than in idiopathic PD. Nonmotor symptoms have a high impact on the patients' quality of life and caregiver burden and should be considered important and often treatable concomitant features of genetic PD.

Original languageEnglish
JournalArchives of Neurology
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)670-676
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 01.06.2010


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