In pain therapy neurostimulation procedures have replaced the previously used lesional methods with only very few exceptions. This is especially true for neuropathic pain, i.e. pain which occurs as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease of the somatosensory system. Nowadays, various stimulation procedures are included in the neurosurgical and anesthesiological armamentarium for pain therapy, depending on the site of damage. This article gives an overview of the currently used invasive stimulation procedures and the indications.