The human hair follicle (HF) is an exquisitely hormone-sensitive mini-organ that undergoes cyclical remodeling. It is also a source and target of numerous neurohormones, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters that regulate HF growth, pigmentation, remodeling, immune status, stem cell biology, and energy metabolism. Indeed, organ-cultured human scalp HFs can be utilized to identify 'novel' clinically relevant functions of major neuromediators. This is pertinently illustrated by the discoveries of: (i) thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) as a hair growth and pigmentation stimulator; (ii) TRH and thyrotropin (TSH) as potent promoters of mitochondrial activity and regulators of keratin expression; and (iii) prolactin as an epithelial stem cell modulator. Thus, HF neuroendocrinology affords insights well beyond hair growth and dermatoendocrinology, uncovering new translationally relevant neuroendocrinology principles and novel therapeutic targets.