Although surgical ablative procedures can be effective in the management of chronic pain of malignant and non-malignant origin, they are often disregarded as treatment options due to the fact that in the past these procedures were associated with high complication rates. The complications include the development of new neurological deficits and in cases of long-term follow-up, the occurrence of the old or new pain syndromes by deafferentation. On the other hand there exist many less invasive, e.g. neuromodulatory procedures or non-invasive measures (systemic oral or transdermal opioids) which are able to considerably reduce chronic pain. Nevertheless, there remain certain very restricted indications for the use of neuroablative procedures for the treatment of chronic pain even today.