Cholangiocarcinomas (CCAs) are the second-most common primary liver cancers. CCAs represent a group of highly heterogeneous tumors classified based on anatomical localization into intra-(iCCA) and extrahepatic CCA (eCCA). In contrast to eCCA, the incidence of iCCA is increasing worldwide. Curative treatment strategies for all CCAs involve oncological resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy in early stages, whereas chemotherapy is administered at advanced stages of disease. Due to late diagnosis, high recurrence rates, and limited treatment options, the prognosis of patients remains poor. Comprehensive molecular characterization has further revealed considerable heterogeneity and distinct prognostic and therapeutic traits for iCCA and eCCA, indicating that specific treatment modalities are required for different subclasses. Several druggable alterations and oncogenic drivers such as fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene fusions and hotspot mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 mutations have been identified. Specific inhibitors have demonstrated striking antitumor activity in affected subgroups of patients in phase II and III clinical trials. Thus, improved understanding of the molecular complexity has paved the way for precision oncological approaches. Here, we outline current advances in targeted treatments and immunotherapeutic approaches. In addition, we delineate future perspectives for different molecular subclasses that will improve the clinical care of iCCA patients.