Background: Neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN) are rare and heterogenous tumours. Few data exist on the impact of surgical therapy. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of gastroenteropancreatic NEN in the German NET-Registry (1999–2012). It focuses on patients without distant metastases (limited disease, LD, stage I–IIIB). Results: Data of 2239 patients with NEN were recorded. Median age was 59 years, the gender ratio was 1:1.3 (f:m). A total of 986 patients (44%) had LD, and the 5-year survival rate (5 years) was 77% for all and 90% for patients with LD. A total of 1635 patients (73%) received a surgical therapy (1st to 6th line); the 5 and 10 ysr were 83/65% after and 59/35% without surgery for all patients (p <.001). The resection margins in the LD patients were 76%, 16%, and 3% for R0, R1 and R2, respectively. The 10 ysr was 84%, 59% and 42% for R0, R1 and R2 resections, respectively (p =.021 R0/R1, p <.001 R0/R2). The R0 resection rate was 75% for G1/G2 NET and 67% for G3 NEC. Conclusion: The rate of complete tumour resection (R0) in LD is independent of tumour grading, and R0 resection is the key determinant of long-term survival, as demonstrated by the 10 ysr. of 84%. All NEN patients with limited disease should be considered for operation, if possible, as the best 10-year survival is shown after an R0 resection.