Left ventricular Thrombi in Takotsubo syndrome: Incidence, predictors, and management: Results from the GEIST (German Italian stress cardiomyopathy) registry

Francesco Santoro, Thomas Stiermaier, Nicola Tarantino, Luisa De Gennaro, Christian Moeller, Francesca Guastafierro, Maria Francesca Marchetti, Roberta Montisci, Elena Carapelle, Tobias Graf, Pasquale Caldarola, Holger Thiele, Matteo Di Biase, Natale Daniele Brunetti*, Ingo Eitel

*Corresponding author for this work
13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background--Left ventricular (LV) thrombi during Takotsubo syndrome represent a potential complication and can be associated with cerebrovascular embolic events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exact incidence, predictors, and management strategies of LV thrombi in patients with Takotsubo syndrome. Methods and Results--We enrolled 541 consecutive patients in a multicenter international registry. Clinical features and echocardiographic data at admission, during hospitalization, and after 3 months were evaluated. Survival rates for long-term follow-up (mean 984±908 days) were recorded. Twelve Takotsubo syndrome patients (2.2%) developed LV thrombi (all female presenting with apical ballooning pattern). All patients with LV thrombi were treated with oral anticoagulation therapy; however, 2 (17%) had a stroke before treatment initiation. These patients were characterized by a higher prevalence of ST-elevation (56% versus 16%; P < 0.001) and higher troponin I levels (10.8±18.3 ng/mL versus 3.5±4.3 ng/mL; P=0.001) as compared with those without LV thrombi. At multivariate analysis including age, sex, LV ejection fraction, ST-elevation at admission, and apical ballooning pattern, troponin I level > 10 ng/mL was the only predictor for LV thrombosis (hazard ratio 6.6, confidence interval, 1.01-40.0; P=0.04). After 3 months all LV thrombi disappeared. Oral anticoagulation therapy was interrupted in all patients except 1. At long-term follow-up, the survival rate was not different between patients with and without LV thrombi (84% versus 85%; P=0.99). Conclusions--LV thrombi have a relatively low incidence among patients with Takotsubo syndrome and were detected in female patients with apical ballooning pattern and increased troponin levels. Oral anticoagulation therapy for 3 months seems reasonable in these high-risk patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere006990
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Volume6
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01.12.2017

Research Areas and Centers

  • Centers: Cardiological Center Luebeck (UHZL)

DFG Research Classification Scheme

  • 205-12 Cardiology, Angiology

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