Background. In minimally invasive surgery (MIS), the loss of stereoscopic depth perception in a two-dimensional (2D) representation is most challenging. Recently introduced 4K ultrahigh definition (UHD) 2D optical systems could potentially facilitate the learning and use of compensation mechanisms for the loss of depth perception. However, the role of the new 4K technology against three dimensional (3D) in learning and implementation of MIS remains unknown. The aim of this trial was to determine the influence of 4K UHD 2D vs 3D HD representation on the acquisition of MIS skills. Methods. This was a prospective randomized study involving 62 MIS-inexperienced study participants. We compared a laparoscopic 4K UHD 2D (system A) vs a laparoscopic 3D HD system (system B) for differences in learning MIS skills using the Lübeck Toolbox (LTB) video box trainer. We evaluated participants' performance regarding the repetitions required to reach the goal of each LTB task. Results. Comparing systems A and B, participants using the laparoscopic 3D system required fewer repetitions to achieve goals of LTB tasks No. 1 (P = .0048) and No. 3 (P = .0014). In contrast, for LTB tasks No. 2 and No. 4, no significant difference could be determined between both groups. Conclusion. Our results indicated that MIS basic skills can be learned quicker using a 3D HD system vs a 4K UHD 2D system. However, for MIS tasks in confined spaces, the learning speed with 4K UHD 2D imaging seems to be comparable to a 3D HD system.