Lead - Still a health threat for marksmen

Elke Ochsmann*, Thomas Göen, Karl Heinz Schaller, Hans Drexler

*Corresponding author for this work
12 Citations (Scopus)


Object: Indoor shooting is a popular recreational activity all over the world. It is also a known source of exposure to lead fumes and dusts for the general, i.e. the non-occupationally exposed population. This study aimed at reporting the lead levels in blood of indoor shooters in Germany in association with personal behaviour at shooting ranges. Methods: Seven marksmen were examined via self-administered questionnaires. Lead level in blood (BLL) as well as airborne lead concentration (personal air sampling (PAS)) were detected. Results: All measured blood lead levels (median: 290 μg lead/L; range: 240-450 μg lead/L) exceeded the values of the German general population (50 μg/L). Shooters sweeping the range after training seemed especially exposed (PAS: 7.14 mg lead/m3). Conclusion: While extensive public effort is undertaken to prevent the general population from environmental lead exposure this short report gives reason to keep recreational shooting in mind when facing elevated blood lead levels or clinical symptoms possibly associated with lead intoxication.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)557-561
Number of pages5
Publication statusPublished - 01.09.2009

DFG Research Classification Scheme

  • 205-10 Toxicology, Occupational Medicine, Clinical Chemistry


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