Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can contribute to sustainable transport. Yet, their real-world energy efficiency depends on HEV drivers’ eco-driving behaviour. Eco-driving knowledge is key for successful eco-driving. The present research focused on the role of perceived strategy knowledge (know-how) versus technical system knowledge (know-why) in a study with 121 HEV drivers. The relationship between knowledge components and knowledge acquisition processes, as well as fuel efficiency, were examined. Structural equation modelling results indicated that perceived strategy knowledge was related to acquisition by testing (i.e., interacting with the vehicle and its interfaces) and reading (i.e., manuals, books and websites) while technical system knowledge was only related to acquisition by reading. In contrast to technical system knowledge, perceived strategy knowledge was no significant predictor of fuel efficiency. The results indicated that emphasis should be put into promoting technical system knowledge (e.g., by tutoring systems) to support motivated drivers’ in achieving higher fuel efficiency.