Background: Modern high-resolution imaging techniques have provided new insights into the pathogenesis of aortic dissection during recent years. Distinct pathologic entities or potential precursors of classic false-lumen aortic dissection such as intramural hematoma or penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer have been identified. As a result, a novel classification according to Svensson used in addition to the standard differentiation according to DeBakey or Stanford has been introduced. Due to improved diagnostic imaging, preoperative mortality has decreased but mortality remains substantial (up to 1.4% per hour within the first 2 days) related to complications of aortic dissection such as aortic rupture, bleeding, pericardial tamponade, critical branch vessel ischemia, multiorgan failure, and myocardial infarction. Examinations: Transesophageal echocardiography, angiography, magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography as well as intravascular ultrasound are used for a complete vascular "staging" of patients with aortic dissection after initial stabilization (with or without surgery). New catheter-based interventional techniques have been developed to improve the poor prognosis of aortic dissection: 1. Percutaneous balloon fenestration (PTF) of the intimal flap improves perfusion in case of bowel, limb, or renal ischemia. 2. Aortic stent-graft placement allows for occlusion of the intimal entry tear by implantation of a membrane-covered, self-expanding stent-graft to initiate progressive thrombus formation within the false lumen. Compared to the traditional surgical approaches, both techniques have a low complication rate. The development of these techniques may help to further improve to decrease patients' morbidity and mortality.