Abstract

BACKGROUND: A mitochondrial polygenic score (MGS) is composed of genes related to mitochondrial function and found to be associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) risk.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of the MGS and lifestyle/environment on age at onset (AAO) in LRRK2 p.Gly2019Ser parkinsonism (LRRK2-PD) and idiopathic PD (iPD).

METHODS: We included N = 486 patients with LRRK2-PD and N = 9259 with iPD from the Accelerating Medicines Partnership® Parkinson's Disease Knowledge Platform (AMP-PD), Fox Insight, and a Tunisian Arab-Berber founder population. Genotyping data were used to perform the MGS analysis. Additionally, lifestyle/environmental data were obtained from the PD Risk Factor Questionnaire (PD-RFQ). Linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between MGS, lifestyle/environment, and AAO.

RESULTS: Our derived MGS was significantly higher in PD cases compared with controls (P = 1.1 × 10-8 ). We observed that higher MGS was significantly associated with earlier AAO in LRRK2-PD (P = 0.047, β = -1.40) and there was the same trend with a smaller effect size in iPD (P = 0.231, β = 0.22). There was a correlation between MGS and AAO in LRRK2-PD patients of European descent (P = 0.049, r = -0.12) that was visibly less pronounced in Tunisians (P = 0.449, r = -0.05). We found that the MGS interacted with caffeinated soda consumption (P = 0.003, β = -5.65) in LRRK2-PD and with tobacco use (P = 0.010, β = 1.32) in iPD. Thus, patients with a high MGS had an earlier AAO only if they consumed caffeinated soda or were non-smokers.

CONCLUSIONS: The MGS was more strongly associated with earlier AAO in LRRK2-PD compared with iPD. Caffeinated soda consumption or tobacco use interacted with MGS to predict AAO. Our study suggests gene-environment interactions as modifiers of AAO in LRRK2-PD. © 2023 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMovement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Volume38
Issue number10
Pages (from-to)1837-1849
Number of pages13
ISSN0885-3185
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10.2023

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