Background: Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a chaperone that regulates activity of many client proteins responsible for cellular growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, has been proposed as an important clinical and preclinical therapeutic target in a number of malignancies and autoimmune diseases, respectively. In this study, we evaluated the effects of pharmacological Hsp90 inhibition on human proinflammatory T cell responses. Findings: Using anti-CD3 antibody-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures, we observed that Hsp90 inhibition by non-toxic concentrations of the geldanamycin derivative 17-DMAG significantly blocked T cell proliferation, reduced IFN-γ and IL-17 expression on CD4+ T lymphocytes, and arrested secretion of proinflammatory IFN-γ, TNF-aα, and IL-17, cytokines characteristic of Th1 and Th17 cells, respectively. These effects were associated with inhibition of NF-kB activity, upregulation of Hsp70 protein expression, and disruption of T cell-specific nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Lck activation. Conclusions: Our results further support the potential use of Hsp90 inhibitors in patients with autoimmune diseases where uncontrolled Th1 or Th17 activation frequently occurs.