The anemia of chronic inflammatory and malignant diseases is partly due to impaired synthesis of the hormone erythropoietin (Epo). The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-alpha) suppress in vitro Epo gene expression and Epo protein secretion. However, the molecular mechanisms of this inhibition are poorly understood. The human Epo promoter and the 5' flanking region contain several recognition sequences for transcription factors acting either positively or negatively. Herein, we investigated the roles of the transcription factors GATA-2 and NF-kappaB in the modulation of Epo gene expression by IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed increased GATA-2 and NF-kappaB DNA binding in cells treated with IL-1beta or TNF-alpha. Reporter gene assays with a sequence from the Epo promoter in front of the firefly luciferase gene showed that the cytokines reduced Epo reporter gene activity. Functional inactivation of GATA-2 and NF-kappaB by oligo-decoy techniques prevented the inhibition of Epo production by IL-1beta and TNF-alpha. In HepG2 cells stably transfected with a dominant-negative form of IkappaBalpha, the activation of NF-kappaB was inhibited, while Epo mRNA levels and Epo secretion increased. Thus, both GATA-2 and NF-kappaB seem to be involved in the suppression of Epo gene expression by IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in vitro and may be responsible for impaired Epo synthesis in inflammatory diseases in vivo.
|Journal||The FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology|
|Number of pages||3|
|Publication status||Published - 11.2002|
Research Areas and Centers
- Academic Focus: Center for Brain, Behavior and Metabolism (CBBM)